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The Historical Context of International Communications

24 September 2018   02:30 Diperbarui: 24 September 2018   13:46 1200 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...

The study of international communication can be accessed by an understanding of things that cannot be changed in its development. The connection of economic, military and political forces to efficient communication systems, ranging from flags, flares and runners, to telegraphic ships and wires, and now satellites.

The evolution of nineteenth-century telegraph communication and empire exemplified this reciprocal relationship, which took place in the 20th century, even after the end of the kingdom. During the two World Wars and the Cold War, the strength and importance of new media - radio and then television - for international communication by their use for international propaganda and their potential recognition for socio-economic development.

Communication and empire
Communication is always important for the formation and maintenance of power over distance. From the Persian, Greek, and Roman empires to an efficient British communications network was essential for the imposition of imperial authority, as well as for international trade and trade on which it was based. Indeed, the level of the kingdom can be used as an 'indication of communication efficiency' (Innis, [1950] 1972: 9).

Communication networks and technology are key to distributed government mechanisms, military campaigns and trade. The Greek historian Diodorus Cronus (4th century BC) tells how the Persian king, Darius I (522-486 BC), who expanded the Persian Empire from Danube to Indus, was able to send news from the capital to the province by means of ranks of people who screaming placed at height.

This kind of transmission is 30 times faster than using runners. At De Bello Gallico Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) reported that Gauls, using human voices, could summon all their soldiers to fight in just three days.

In addition to the official communication system, there is always an informal network of travelers and traders. International communication technology and globalization may be contemporary phenomena but trade and cultural exchanges have existed for more than two millennia between the Greco-Roman world with Arabs, Indians and Chinese.

Indian goods were exported to the Persian Gulf and then by land, through Mesopotamia, to the Mediterranean coast, and from there onwards to Western Europe. Extensive trans-Asian trade developed in ancient times, connecting China with India and Arab lands. Then, the Silk Road through Central Asia connected China, India and Persia with Europe.

In the 8th century, paper introduced from China began to replace parchment in the Islamic world and spread to medieval Europe. Also from China, printing slowly spread to Europe, helped by the occupation of Moors from Spain, but not until the fifteenth century, with a movable type printing machine developed by Johann Gutenberg, a goldsmith in Mainz in Germany, that communication tools changed .

Growing a coat of arms
The second half of the nineteenth century saw the widespread imperial communication system made possible by the electric telegraph. Created by Samuel Morse in 1837, the telegraph allows fast transmission of information, and ensures code confidentiality and protection. The business community first used this new technology. Telegraphic speed and reliability appear to offer opportunities for profit and international expansion (Headrick, 1991). Rapid telegraph development was an important feature in the unification of the British Empire.

With the first commercial telegraph connection established in England in 1838, in 1851 a public telegraph service, including a money telegraph system, was introduced. By the end of this century, as a result of cable connections, the telegraph allowed Colonial Offices and Indian Offices to communicate directly with the Empire within minutes when, before, it took months to post coming by sea. By providing spot prices for commodities such as cotton, telegrams allow British traders, export cotton from India or Egypt to the UK, to easily defeat their competitors (Read, 1992).

The Era of News Agencies

The establishment of the news agency was the most important development in the newspaper industry of the nineteenth century, altering the process of news dissemination, nationally and internationally

Communication was central to the expansion and consolidation of modern European empires,

the largest and the most powerful being the British Empire, which at its height, 1880-1914, dominated a quarter of humanity. The fortunes of Reuters, the most famous international news agency, can be seen to run in parallel with the growth of the British Empire.

The Advent of Popular Media

Newspaper were used by leaders to articulate nascent nasionalism in many Asian countries.

The internationalization of a nascent mass culture, however began with the film industry.

The development of independent studios between 1909 and 1913 led to the growth of the Hollywood film industry which was to dominate global film production.

In the twentieth century, advertising became increasingly important in international communication. Advertisers have aimed at international audiences. This trend became even stronger with the growth of radio and television

Radio and International Communication

* As with other new technologies,

* 1906 international radiotelegraph conference in Berlin,

* Two distinct types of national radio broadcasting emerged:

The Battle of The Airwaves

1.The strategic significance of international communication grew with the

   expansion of the new medium.

2.The Russian communists were one of the earliest political groups to

   realize the ideological and strategic importance of broadcasting.

3. The Nazi also used radio broadcasting in 1993 when they one power.

4. The Second World War saw an explosion in international broadcasting as

    a propaganda tool on both sides.

5. Until the Second World War radio in the USA was known more for its

    commercial potential as a vehicle for advertisements rather than a             

    government  ment propaganda tool, but after 1942, the year the Voice of  

    America (VOA)was founded.

The Cold War - from Communist Propaganda to Capitalist Persuasion

1.After second world war, the victorious allies (the Soviet Union and the West led by the   

   United States) have two contrasting views of organizing society: the Soviet view, inspired

   by Marxism-Leninism, and the capitalist individualism championed by the US.

2.Though the 1947 General Assembly Resolution 110 (II) prohibit any propaganda

   activities,  both camps indulged in regular propaganda as the battle lines of the Cold War

3.Soviet broadcast propaganda

a.Communist propaganda, a central component of post-war Soviet diplomacy, was primarily aimed at the Eastern bloc, and, increasingly, to what came to be known as the Third World

b.During the Cold War years, TASS remained a major source of news among the media in eastern bloc countries

c.One of the first major propaganda battles the Soviet Union waged was in 1948 against a fellow socialist country -- Yugoslavia

d.There was scant interest among Western populations for Russian international broadcasts, it makes Western governments not even                                feel worry about jamming them. In contrast, the authorities in Moscow tried to interfere with Western broadcasts, seeing them as                                    a network of 'radio saboteurs' subverting the achievements of socialism

4.US broadcast propaganda

a.The Voice of America became a crucial component of US foreign broadcasting during the Cold War

b.An early indication of the increasing use of radio for propaganda was evident in the way VOA was used to promote US President Harry                Truman's 'Campaign for Truth' against communism, following the outbreak in 1950 of the  Korean War


a.BBC prided themselves on presenting a mature, balanced view, winning by argument, rather than hammering home a point

b.The BBC World Service played a key part in the Cold War through its strategically located global network of relay stations

6. Cold War propaganda in the Third World

a.Radio was seen as a crucial medium, given the low levels of literacy among most of the population of the developing countries

b.Broadcast propaganda was also used in areas where the Cold War was often very hot

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