* scholastic period
the term scholastic comes from the word school which means school. so, scholasticism is a school-related flow.
This scholastic philosophy can develop due to several factors:
*) religious factors: the situation at that time assumed that Isa was a child of God.
*) scientific factors: at that time many established "teaching institutions" were pursued by monasteries, churches, or from royal families.
The scholastic period is divided into 3, namely:
a. initial scholasticism (800-1200)
from the 5th to the 8th century AD, patristic philosophical thought began to decline. This is because at that time there was an attack on the Romans so that the Roman Empire and its civilization collapsed. in the 8th century it was able to provide peace in the fields of politics, culture, and science. Among the characters are:
* Peter Abaelard (1079-1180)
it includes sensualism and rationalism, meaning that the role of reason can subdue the power of faith.
b. scholastic peak (1200-1300)
This period was marked by the emergence of universities and orders that helped advance science. Here are some of the factors that reached the peak of scholasticism:
* the influence of Aristotle
* the establishment of the Almamater University in France in 1200
* the establishment of orders.
c. Final scholasticism (1300-1450)
this period was marked by the boredom of all kinds of philosophical thought that became the mecca that involved stagnation. The characters are:
* William Ockham (1285-1349)
in his opinion, the human mind can only know individual things or events.
* Nicolas Cusasus (1401-1464)
in his opinion, there are three ways to recognize, namely through the senses, reason, and intuition.
d. scholastic arabic (islam)
figures including Islamic thinkers, namely Al-farabi, Ibn Sina, Al-kindi, and Ibn Rasyid. the role of thinkers is very large, i.e.
* Until the middle of the 12th century Westerners only knew Aristotelian logic
* Westerners know Aristotle thanks to the writings of Islamic thought experts, especially Ibn Rashid.
* Islamic scholasticism led to the development of Latin scholasticism.