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Student of Universitas International Batam




Effect of Fast Fashion

11 November 2020   19:48 Diperbarui: 5 April 2021   18:11 2711 1 1
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Effect of fast fashion (Source : /

Clothing Industry in Indonesia

The clothing industry in Indonesia in the first quarter of 2019 was recorded to have grown by 18.98%, where this growth increased compared to the previous year ( 2019). Indonesia's textile and garment exports alone were valued at US $ 13.8 billion in 2019, and the government aims to push the industry into the top five in the world (Medina 2020). With this increasing growth, foreign investors will have the opportunity to invest in clothing companies in Indonesia.

Indonesia Apparel Industry Contribution to Pollution
Regardless of this enormous potential or opportunity, the clothing industry has caused very serious environmental pollution in Indonesia where pollution of the clothing industry is almost the same as water pollution (Sweeny 2015). Every year the fashion industry uses 93 billion cubic meters of water - enough to meet the consumption needs of five million people (Fleischmann 2019), where this water is used for colored clothes, 200 tons of water are used per dress ( 2020). The fashion or clothing industry itself is the second-largest polluter in the world, along with the growth of the clothing industry, the increasing increase in environmental pollution (Sweeny 2015). Conducted a study on the G20 countries that contribute to water pollution as a result of this textile production, in the results of this study, the Indonesian state contributed as much as 29.25% in water pollution due to textile production in 2015.

Figure 1 : Water Pollution, Textile Industry accross G20 Countries (Paraschiv, Tudor, and Petrariu 2015)
Figure 1 : Water Pollution, Textile Industry accross G20 Countries (Paraschiv, Tudor, and Petrariu 2015)
Trends that are changing rapidly have led to a fast fashion strategy. Fast fashion focuses on low production costs and changing trends. Therefore, the production of clothes is carried out quickly and the formation of low durability from the collections of clothes produced. The quality of the clothes itself decreases every year ( 2019) which results in the clothes being purchased looking worn, shapeless, or looking faded. Clothing companies also produce 52 micro collections annually ( 2020) and produce nearly double the number of clothing collections compared to pre-2000 (Niinimäki et al. 2020).

With trends that often change, this triggers a consumptive attitude of consumers to follow trends (Neumann, Martinez, and Martinez 2020). The consumptive attitude of consumers will add to the waste thrown away by consumers due to the low durability and quality of clothes. Consumers only wear clothes purchased 7 times before they are finally thrown away and turned into the trash ( 2020). Textile waste accounts for as much as 22% of mixed waste in the world (Niinimäki et al. 2020).

Figure 2 : Number of clothing units purchased per country ( 2017)
Figure 2 : Number of clothing units purchased per country ( 2017)
Figure 3 : Environmental impacts of the six types of fiber. (Niinimäki et al. 2020)
Figure 3 : Environmental impacts of the six types of fiber. (Niinimäki et al. 2020)
Effect of Fast Fashion Apparel on your Health

According to Giovanna Luongo, the chemicals used in every part of textile production to make fibers, bleach, and dye fabrics, etc., are very harmful to our skin. 63% of items tested were found in hazardous chemicals from 20 different textile brands (Luongo 2015). So it can be said that fast fashion can harm our skin due to these chemicals. Good physical health and quality of life are things that encourage consumers to choose products that can ensure their survival (Prakash et al. 2019). Knowing this fact, consumers also prefer to buy clothes that have Oeko-Tex®, Gots, and Bluesign® certifications ( 2020).

The Rise in Awareness of Fast Fashion Impact

The publication of the impact of fast fashion ( 2017) and the Earth Day action which is commemorated by the whole world on April 22 indicates that there is public awareness of the surrounding environment. With environmental awareness, consumers prefer their consumption patterns, which means that consumers who are aware of the environment are more interested in buying green products for sustainability (Kumar et al. 2018) (Ricci, Banterle, and Stranieri 2018). In fact, environmental awareness affects consumer attitudes, consumers are more concerned with preventing environmental pollution than fulfilling their desires, which is an attitude of altruism (Prakash et al. 2019) (Gupta, Dash, and Mishra 2019). Due to changes in consumer consumption patterns, there has been an increase in demand for green apparel or an increase in interest in slow fashion products to prevent an increase in environmental waste and environmental pollution ( 2019).

Knowing that customers in business growth are very important and also the increasing demand and increasing popularity of sustainability ( 2019) encourage clothing companies to do green branding and shift to more environmentally friendly production to meet consumer desires. So in recent years, the production of environmentally friendly and products low in hazardous chemicals has increased rapidly in the US. For example, companies that produce environmentally friendly clothing such as H&M, Stella McCartney, ASOS, Minna, Moonton, and others.

Figure 4 : Growth of sales of green products in the US (Gelski 2019)
Figure 4 : Growth of sales of green products in the US (Gelski 2019)
In order to compete with fast fashion trends, environmentally friendly companies need to identify what factors influence consumer purchase intentions in buying green apparel. Green purchase intention has been researched by various countries, but the results obtained by various researchers also differ, because different demographics trigger consumer attitudes towards green purchase intention are not the same. In Indonesia alone, not many studies have discussed green apparel consumerism. With Indonesia's fast economic growth and the 4th population in the world (Arieza 2018), the Indonesian state has great potential or opportunities in green apparel products, which makes it an attractive place for businesses who want to take advantage of this opportunity.

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