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Philosophy 8

9 Desember 2019   03:41 Diperbarui: 9 Desember 2019   03:51 3 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...

a. Enlightenment in Germany
Enlightenment in Germany was not as hostile as his attitude toward Christianity as was the case in France. Indeed people also try to attack the basics of faith based on revelation, and replace it with religion based on feelings that are pantheistic, but all of that goes without open "war".

The center of attention in Germany is ethics. People aspire to change the teachings of morality based on revelation into a morality based on common good, which clearly shows concern for feelings. From the beginning philosophical thought was influenced by spiritual movements in England and in France. That resulted in German philosophy not standing alone.
The pioneers included Samuel Pufendorff (1632-1694), Christian Thomasius (1655-1728). But the real leader in philosophy is 

Christian Wolff (1679-1754) .5
striving for philosophy to become a definite and useful science, by striving for clear understandings with strong evidence. Very important to him is the arrangement of philosophical systems which are didactic, clear ideas and decisive decomposition. It was he who created philosophical terms in German and made that language compatible with scientific thought. Because of his work philosophy draws public attention.

Enlightenment in England
In England the philosophy of the Enlightenment was advanced by thinkers of various faiths. Most experts think that one person is freer than the others, except of course some main schools.

One of the symptoms of Enlightenment in England is what is called Deism, a school of philosophy in English in the 18th century, which combines with Eduard Herbert's ideas which can be called the foundation of natural religious teachings.

According to Herbert, reason has absolute autonomy in the field of religion. Also Christianity was conquered by reason. On the basis of this opinion he opposes all beliefs based on revelation. Against all skepticism in the field of religion he intends as strongly as possible to affirm the basic natural truths of religion.

The basis of knowledge in the field of religion is some general understanding that is certain to everyone and is immediately apparent because of natural instincts, which precede all experience in reason thinking. The measure of truth and certainty is the general agreement of all humans, because of the commonality of reason. The contents of that knowledge are about matters of religion and decency.

c. Enlightenment in France
In the 18th century philosophy in France drew its ideas from England. The pioneers of philosophy in France itself (Descartes, etc.) have been forgotten and no longer appreciated. Now their teachers are Locke and Newton.
The difference between French and English philosophy at that time was:

In England the philosophers did not try to make the results of their thoughts known to the public, but in France this new belief was originally given in the popular form. As a result, philosophy in France can be captured by a broader group, which is not as educated as philosophers. This makes the new belief into public view. Thus in France philosophy was more violently connected with political, social and cultural life at that time. Because of its popular nature, philosophy in France at that time was not very deep. Christianity was severely attacked using weapons given by Deism.