A. MUHAMMAD ABDUHB
Biography of Muhammad Abduh. Muhammad Abduh was born in the village of Mahallat Nashr in al-Buhairah District, Egypt in 1849, he was a Muslim thinker from Egypt. He studied philosophy and logic at Al-Azhar University, Cairo, and also a student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Abduh was exiled from Egypt in 1882, because of his involvement in the Urabi Rebellion in Lebanon, in 188. He moved to Paris, with al-Afghani he published the Islamic journal The Firmest Bond. One of Abduh's best-known works is a book called Risalah at-Tawhid. Abduh had different ideas from Jamaludin Al-Afgani. Al-Afgani wants the renewal of Muslims through state renewal, while Abduh believes that state renewal can be achieved through renewal of the ummah. Abduh did not want the path of revolution but through the path of evolution. Therefore he did not want a confrontational attitude towards the invaders in order to improve the people from within.
The main points of Muhammad Abduh's thoughts in the social religious field are:
1) The progress of Islam is closed by the Muslims themselves, where Muslims are frozen in understanding the teachings of Islam, memorized lafadznya but do not try to practice the contents of the content. In this case Abduh's famous expression in the Muslim world ".
2) Intellect has a very high position in Islam. Religion is in line with reason and there is no religion for people who do not use reason. From the intellect will be revealed the mystery of the universe created by God for the welfare of man himself. Only with the height of reason and knowledge can humans position themselves as creatures of God who are filially devoted to the Creator.
3) Islamic teachings are in accordance with modern knowledge as well as modern Science in accordance with Islamic teachings.
B. MUHAMMMAD IQBAL
Bioography of Muhammad iqbal. Muhammad Iqbal was born in Sialkot-India on November 9, 1877, he received a good education. After his basic education was completed at Sialkot he entered Government College in Lahore. Iqbal became a favorite student of Sir Thomas Arnold. Iqbal graduated in 1897 and obtained a scholarship and two gold medals for his good English and Arabic, and in 1909 he received an M.A in philosophy. Muhammad Iqbal's thoughts were classified in two ways, that are:
1. Political Thought. As a mature statesman, of course his views on external threats are also very sharp. For Iqbal, Western culture is a culture of imperialism, materialism, anti-spiritual and far from human norms. Therefore he strongly opposed the bad influence of Western culture. He believes that the most important factor for reform in man is his identity. With his understanding based on the teachings of Islam, he struggled to develop confidence in the Islamic Ummah and its Islamic identity.
2. His Thoughts About the Foundation of Islam.
a. Thinking About the Qur'an As an educated person in a strong family who holds Islamic principles, Iqbal believes that the Qur'an is the true word of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through the intermediary of the Angel Gabriel. Al-Qur'an is the main source of law with the statement "The Qur'an is a book which emphasizes rather than ideas (Al-Qur'an is a book that gives priority to charity rather than ideals). But he argues that the Qur'an is not a law. He argues that the interpretation of the Qur'an can develop according to changing times, the door of ijtihad is never closed. The main purpose of al-Qur'an is to raise human awareness higher in relation to God and the universe, the Qur'an does not contain it in detail, so it is humans who are required to develop it. In terms of jurisprudence this is called ijtihad.