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Philosophy in German, French, and England

4 Desember 2019   11:57 Diperbarui: 4 Desember 2019   11:58 0 1 0 Mohon Tunggu...

1). Philosophy in Germany

German philosophy It started in the 17th century during the Age of Enlightenment, from Leibniz and Wolff through Kant, Schelling, Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Marx, Engels, and into the times of Nietzsche and Wittgenstein. 

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646--1716) was both a philosopher and a mathematician who wrote primarily in Latin and French, was one of the most influential philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries.  He is especially famous for his understanding of Thodice that humans live in the best possible world because this world was created by a Perfect God. The 18th-century philosophy in Germany is called the Aufklarung Age, a new era in which an intelligent thinker tries to resolve the conflict between rationalism and empiricism. Thus the epiphany of enlightenment was a new stage in the process of emancipation of Western humans which had begun since the Renaissance and the Reformation.

2). Philosophy in French

French philosophy , has influenced Western philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Peter Abelard , through the founding of modern philosophy by Ren Descartes, to 20th century philosophy of science, existentialism , phenomenology. 

In medieval period,  Peter Abelard (1079 -- April 21, 1142) was a scholastic philosopher. The general importance of Abelard lies in his having fixed more decisively than anyone before him the scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formally rational expression to received ecclesiastical doctrine.

In 17th century, began in France with the philosophy of Ren Descartes(1596--1650). His Meditations on First Philosophychanged the primary object of philosophical thought from ontologyto epistemology and overcame the Aristotelian dogmatism inherited in philosophy from Scholasticism , the dominant form of thought in preceding centuries, while simultaneously raising some of the most fundamental problems for future generations of philosophers.

3). Philosophy in England

The native characteristics of British philosophy are these: common sense, dislike of complication, a strong preference for the concrete over the abstract and a certain awkward honesty of method in which an occasional pearl of poetry is embedded. 

In Medieval period, Saint Anselm of Canterbury (c. 1033 -- 1109), famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God. and the theory of satisfaction of redemption. Anselm's works are considered to be philosophical and also theological because they strive to provide the teachings of the Christian faith, which are traditionally regarded as truths expressed, as rational systems.