"Defence Heritage Protection in Indonesia for IJAS Conference in Malta University"

21 Februari 2018   11:46 Diperbarui: 21 Februari 2018   12:10 347 0 0
"Defence Heritage Protection in Indonesia for IJAS Conference in Malta University"
dokumen pribadi

This is not Full Paper. Full Paper was published by IJAS Conference.

Annual Multidisciplinary Conference in University of Malta, February 11-15, 2018

"Defense Heritage Protection in Indonesia"

Jeanne Francoise, I Wayan Midhio, Triyoga Budi Prasetyo

(Email: ; Indonesia Defense University)


This paper, that would be presented in Annual Multidisciplinary Conference in University of Malta, February 11-15, 2018, would speak about the lesson learned of defense heritage protection around the world, and what government of Indonesia is doing to preserve and co-exist the materials or defense heritage sites around Indonesia.

To preserve, manage, and nominate some sites to be noted in UNESCO's World Heritage is not an easy process, because UNESCO has its own priority and programme to check and investigate all sites around the world, that are merit to have UNESCO's World Heritage logo. Regarding to this issue, somehow Indonesia is applying World Heritage Convention and send some sites to be nominated in UNESCO World Heritage Committee, as well as maintain the tourism business aspect of that sites.

To analyze the problem and the needs, this paper is using the theory of Modernity by Alain Tourraine and theory of historiography of mentality (Histoire de la mentalit) by March Bloch. The theory of Modernity is to explain the modernism system, mechanism, procedures under United Nations (attention to UNESCO) to preserve and maintain cultural sites and theory of historiography is to define which site is just containing cultural aspect and which site is containing both cultural and defense values, based on Indonesian national defense system concept (Sistem Pertahanan Negara/ Sishanneg).

This paper is aimed to gain knowledge about defense heritage in the perspective of Indonesia and how far and how serious is the government of Indonesia to identify, observe, analyze, and apply some cultural sites to be nominated as UNESCO's World Heritage. This paper also will act as recommendation for public policy makers, for example Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defence, and provincial governments where defence heritage is located.

Keywords: defense heritage, Indonesia, national defense system, UNESCO, world heritage


Indonesia, just like Poland, had been colonized by at least 5 (five) countries and now is still processing to select its identity of nation, or as former Indonesian Ambassador for Czech Republic, Prof. Salim Said, ever said that Indonesia is still identified as an unfinished nation. In this unfinished nation problem, Indonesia has some third world problems, including the management system of defence heritage, not just the tangible one, but also the intangible.

Indonesia is one of 161 countries, who participated and ratified UN General Assembly meeting proposed by UNESCO to define an international instrumental binding law to do protection of intangible heritage. The Convention statement of UNESCO said that (Dachlan, 2015, p.132):

"Measures aimed at ensuring the viability of the intangible cultural heritage, including the identification, documentation, research, preservation, protection, promotion, enhancement, transmission, particularly through formal and non-formal education, as well as the revitalization of the various aspects of such heritage".

Dachlan (2015, p.132) also said that long before that Convention that stated the digitalization of heritage, being stated by UNESCO, Indonesia government, under Ministry of Tourism already had digitalization of cultural heritage, with the categories as follows:

  • Alat Musik  (lit. "musical instrument"), 600 elements;
  • Cerita Rakyat  (lit. "folktale"), 495 elements;
  • Makanan Minuman  (food and beverages), 1897 elements;
  • Motif Kain  (lit. "clothing motive"), 665 elements;
  • Musik dan Lagu  (lit. 'music and song'), 531 elements;
  • Naskah Kuno dan Prasasti  (lit. "ancient scripture and inscription"), 121 elements;
  • Ornamen  (lit. "ornament"), 350 elements;
  • Pakaian Tradisional  (lit. "traditional clothing"), 190 elements;
  • Permainan Tradisional  (lit. "traditional game"), 189 elements;
  • Produk Arsitektur  (lit. "architectural product"), 479 elements;
  • Ritual  (lit. "rite"), 447 elements;
  • Seni Pertunjukan  (lit. "performance art"), 250 elements;
  • Senjata dan Alat Perang  (lit. "weapons and war equipment"), 150 elements;
  • Tarian  (lit. "dance"), 679 elements; and
  • Tata Cara Pengobatan dan Pemeliharaan Kesehatan  (lit. "medical and healthcare procedure"), 38 elements.      

Indonesia also ratify Article 2 Year 2013 of International Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, this new class of heritage (Collins, 2012, p.428):

"means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills---as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith---that communities,groups and,in some cases,individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity".


In line with Plato, French sociologist, Alain Touraine, in his book Critique de la Modernit, has been criticizing the concept of modernism while people is too much using the Internet by abandoning the values of being real and being honest. Also, he criticizes the Human Rights as a tool of human liberty without boundaries, while in morality, the respect itself depends on the social and political context, so it is a need to not to generalize Human Rights in close-minded perspectives just to find justification of wrong values.

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