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Era Philosophy Jerman, Inggris, and Prancis

9 Desember 2019   19:55 Diperbarui: 9 Desember 2019   20:03 9 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...


1. Germany In general the Enlightenment in Germany was not as hostile in its attitude towards Christianity as it was in France. Indeed people also try to attack the basics of faith based on revelation, and replace it with religion based on feelings that are pantheistic, but all of that goes without open "war". The center of attention in Germany is ethics. People aspire to change the teachings of morality based on revelation into a morality based on common good, which clearly shows concern for feelings. From the beginning philosophical thought was influenced by spiritual movements in England and in France. That resulted in German philosophy not standing alone. The pioneers included Samuel Pufendorff (1632-1694), Christian Thomasius (1655-1728). But the real leader in philosophy is Christian Wolff (1679-1754). He strives for philosophy to become a sure and useful science, by striving for clear understandings with strong evidence. Very important to him is the arrangement of philosophical systems which are didactic, clear ideas and decisive decomposition. It was he who created philosophical terms in German and made that language compatible with scientific thought. Because of his work philosophy draws public attention. 

2. English
In England the philosophy of the Enlightenment was advanced by thinkers of various faiths. Most experts think that one person is freer than the others, except of course some main schools. One of the symptoms of Enlightenment in England is what is called Deism, a school of philosophy in English in the 18th century, which combines with Eduard Herbert's ideas which can be called the foundation of natural religious teachings. According to Herbert, reason has absolute autonomy in the field of religion. Also Christianity was conquered by reason. On the basis of this opinion he opposes all beliefs based on revelation. Against all skepticism in the field of religion he intends as strongly as possible to affirm the basic natural truths of religion. The basis of knowledge in the field of religion is some general understanding that is certain to everyone and is immediately apparent because of natural instincts, which precede all experience in reason thinking. The measure of truth and certainty is the general agreement of all humans, because of the commonality of reason. The contents of that knowledge are about matters of religion and decency.

3. France
In France in this enlightenment era there was also Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), related to culture according to Rousseau, culture is contrary to nature, because culture corrupts humans. What is meant is a culture that is superfluous and uncontrollable, as seen in France in the 18th century. Regarding religion, Rousseau believes that religion is a private matter. Religion must not alienate people from social life. The mistake of Christianity is that this religion breaks the unity of society. But religion is really needed by the people. The consequence of this situation is that the community imposes religious truths, which are necessary for community life to be recognized, to its members as a law, namely about the existence of God and its administration of the world, about punishment in the afterlife, etc. Outward recognition of religion is indeed necessary for society, but inner recognition cannot be demanded by the state. Rousseau's view of education is closely related to his teachings about the state and society. According to him, education has the duty to free children from the influence of culture and to provide opportunities for children to develop their own natural goodness. Everything that can harm the child's natural development must be kept away from the child. In education there must be no understanding of "power" which gives orders and which must be obeyed. The child must be left to himself. Only in this way is there a guarantee for the desired formation. Also religious education which is positively prohibited. Children must choose themselves