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Ekonomi

"Preventive Measures Against High Level of Urbanization"

7 Juli 2018   11:30 Diperbarui: 7 Juli 2018   11:54 0 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...

The definition of urbanization according to the National Encyclopedia of Indonesia is a process of increasing the proportion of the number of people living in urban areas. Meanwhile, according to Shogo kayono in Harahap (2013) gives the sense of urbanization as the displacement and concentration of the real people who have an impact in relation to the new society based on social, economic, political and cultural factors.

According to Price Waterhouse Cooper data in 2014, Indonesia's urbanization population rate was 51.4 percent or the second highest after Malaysia with a figure of 73.4 percent. The existence of this excessive urbanization has caused various problems in Indonesia, Not only causes problems in the target city but also problems in the abandoned village. The problem in the city is increasing the number of poverty so that the slum settlement also increases, the increase of criminality and many other problems. 

In the village there will also be problems such as the depletion of human resources because the residents have gone to the city, the village finally does not experience any real development. Urbanization is triggered by differences in growth or inequality of facilities from development, particularly between rural and urban areas. As a result, urban areas become magnets of interest to urbanites in search of work. Therefore in this essay will explain efforts to prevent the high urbanization in Indonesia.

Government efforts to suppress the high number of urbanization in Indonesia, the first is speed up village development. Rural development can be an appropriate solution to reduce urbanization and inequality. 

The central government's financial support through village funds as well as the support of rural infrastructure development in the government-driven sector is expected to be an appropriate momentum to accelerate rural development. Law No. 6 Year 2014 About the Village also strengthens the role of villages in development. Endogenous development as a contemporary development model that seeks to optimize local capabilities in its economic growth is considered appropriate for rural development. 

Endogenous development encourages the utilization of local resources by involving local actors in order to improve regional competitiveness. Stimson et al (2006) in his book Regional Economic Development explains that region growth is strongly influenced by leadership, institutions, entrepreneurship, resource support and market appropriateness. Potential areas of natural and cultural resources that are generally owned by the village is one important factor that needs to be explored and developed in order to improve the village economy. 

The beauty of nature and culture in the rural environment is a local potential that can be developed into a source of income. That is why the development of rural potential is necessary in addressing urbanization.

The second is optimizing agricultural development in the village. Development of agricultural sector in the village should be directed to the agribusiness system, because this approach will be able to increase the value added agriculture. In this case it can increase income for local agribusiness actors. Agriculture (agribusiness) as the economic sector in the countryside has a bright prospect to be further developed, to strengthen the people's economy. That is the importance of optimizing the development of agriculture in the village to reduce the number of urbanization in Indonesia.

The last is BUMDes management. Permendagri No.39 of 2010 which governs Village Owned Enterprise declared BUMdes is an effort derived from the potential or wealth of the village established / established by the village government whose capital ownership and management are carried out by the village government and community. BUMDes as a village effort has a very big role in suppressing the flow of urbanization in Indonesia. The various roles played are: first, BUMDes will be able to suppress the growth rate of urban population. 

This is caused by the existence of employment that can be provided BUMDes so that the mobility of workers to the city can be suppressed. Secondly, BUMDes can encourage the growth and development of the economic activities of the village community, resulting in a wider multiflier impact. Third, BUMDes can provide protection to the community in the form of lending with lower interest rates so as not to be trapped by loan sharks. 

Fourth, BUMDes can be a source of Village Original Income so that the development budget in rural areas can be improved. This is due to the input of profit funds of BUMDes. Fifth, BUMDes can suppress the centralization of capital to the city. This is because BUMDes functions to absorb funds in the form of rural community savings. That's the role of BUMDes in reducing the number of urbanization in Indonesia.

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