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The Role of Bacteria in Life

5 Desember 2019   17:03 Diperbarui: 5 Desember 2019   17:37 6 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...
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The Role of Bacteria in Life

The Role of Bacteria in Life

Some bacteria are beneficial and some are harmful to agriculture, and human health.

What Are the Roles of Bacteria in Life?

In addition to having harmful or detrimental impacts on humans and animals, in some circumstances and types of bacteria can be beneficial and beneficial if managed correctly and in the right way. Here are some types of beneficial bacteria if managed in the right way.

1. Agriculture

  • Rhizobium leguminosorum in the roots of legumes, free nitrogen binding.
  • Azotobacter chlorococcum is able to fertilize the soil by binding nitrogen in the air.
  • Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus, produce nitrites which fertilize the soil.

The types of beneficial bacteria can be used as biological fertilizers.

2. Food Industry

  • Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, are used to make yogurt.
  • Acetobacter xylinum, used to make nata de coco.
  • Streptococcus lactis, used to make cheese.
  • Acetobacter sp, used to make vinegar.

3. Pharmacy

  • Streptomyces griceus, produces streptomycin antibiotics (kill the bacteria that cause tuberculosis).
  • Streptomvces aureofaciens, produce aureomycin antibiotics.
  • Streptomyces olivaceus, to produce cyanocobalamin vitamin B12.
  • Streptomyces venezuelae, produces chloromycetin antibiotics.
  • Bacillus brevis, produces thyroid antibiotics (Figure 5.25).
  • Bacillus brevis bacteria (antibiotics).
  • Pseudomonas denitrificans and Propioni bacterium, produce vitamin B12. Clostridium acetobutylicum, produce acetone and butanol.
  • Xanthomonas campestris, produces polysaccharides.
  • Acetobacter aceti, used to make vinegar.
  • Leucanostoc masenteroides, produce dextran.
  • Lactobacillus delbruecki, lactic acid producer.

4. Biogas Production and Decomposition

Escherichia coli, helps the process of food spoilage in the human colon and forming vitamin K (Figure 5.27).

Figure 5.27. Escherichia coli in cow intestines. 

  • Methanobacterium omelianski and Methanobacterium ruminatum, materi IPA decompose vinegar (CH3COOH) into methane (CH4) and CO2.
  • Clostridium sporangeus, breaks down amino acids into ammonia.
  • Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, decompose carcasses and decompose sulfate in muddy places and produce H2S.
  • Thiobacillus denitrificans, decompose nitrites and produce N or called denitrification.

You already know various kinds of beneficial bacteria. Do the following activities so that you can apply the biology you gained in life.

Have you all ever had yogurt? As you know, yogurt is a good drink for health because it contains bacteria that protect the body from disease-causing bacteria. In order to make yogurt, you need ingredients such as drinkable cow's milk, plastic cups, thermometers and refrigerators. Yogurt can be obtained by fermenting milk using the starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococus thermophilus.

The first stage, milk is heated at 90oC. This is done to prevent contamination and is a good condition for bacterial inoculation. In addition, casein changes due to heating will give good results with uniform conditions. Then in the second stage, the milk is cooled to 43oC. then inoculated with 2% culture starter mixture Lactobacilus bulgaricus and Streptoccocus thermophilus. The mixture temperature is left for 3 hours until the desired acidity (0.35-0.95)% is obtained. Try the pH on acidity to reach pH 4.5. The product is cooled down to 5oC. Next, you can package yogurt products.

Bibliography Material - The Role of Bacteria in Life

Agricultural Biology Volume 2 for Vocational Schools / by Amelia Zuliyanti Siregar, Utt Widyastuti Suharsono, Hilda Akmal, Hadisunarso, Sulistijorini, Nampiah Sukarno, Anja Merdiyani, Tri Heru W., Raden Roro Dyah Perwitasari Jakarta: Directorate of School Development Vocational Secondary, Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Management, Ministry of National Education, 2008.