The term scholastic is an adjective derived from the word school, which means school. So, scholasticism means school-related flow. Scholastic philosophy develops and grows due to several factors
1. Religious Factors
2. Factors of science
The scholastic period is divided into 3 periods
1. Early scholasticism. From the 5th to the 8th centuries AD, Patristic philosophical thought began to decline, especially in the 6th and 7th centuries said to be chaotic centuries. Due to the time of the attack on Rome, the Roman empire and its civilization collapsed. The characters are Aquina (735-805), Johannes Scotes Eriugena (815-870), Peter Lombard (1100-1160), John Salisbury (1115-1180), Peter Abaelardus (1079-1180).
2. Peak Scholasticism. This period is a period of scholastic glory that lasted from 1200-1300 and this period is called the flowering period. A period marked by the emergence of universities, orders that participated in organizing or advancing science and culture.
The factors are
* The influence of Aristotle, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sina who grew into extensive science
* In 1200 the University of Almamater was founded in France.
* The establishment of orders.
3. Final Scholasticism. This period was marked by the boredom of all kinds of philosophical thought, so that it showed stagnation. The characters; William Ockham (1285-1349), Nicolas Cusasus (1401-1464).
4. Scholatic Arabic (Islam), In his book Hasbullah Bakry explains that the term scholastic Islam is rarely used among Muslims. The terms often used are kalam science and Islamic philosophy. Prominent Islamic thought leaders are Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Al-Kindi, Ibn Rusyd. There are 2 periods in Islamic scholasticism:
a) Mutakallimin Period (700-900);
b) Period of Islamic Philosophy (850-1200).