PRESERVATION OF BOROBUDUR TEMPLE
Completed in 1983 and registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1991, the number of visitors to the Borobudur Temple continues to grow to 4,444. In 2017, Borobudur Temple was visited by 3.66 million tourists, but in 2019 before Corona, the number of domestic and foreign tourists increased to 2.94 million. After that, a very dramatic decline occurred, and the number of tourists at that time decreased to 996,000 only in 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic. According to some research and literature, human activity is Borobudur Temple.
It was also announced by Marsis Stopo, President of the Indonesian Archaeological Association (PIAA). To protect the temple, he took steps to develop special sandals to reduce visitor wear, used wood as tourist shoes and restricted the area that visitors could enter. Various efforts have been made to do this, and British historian Peter Carey, who studies the history of ancient Java, was unable to close the original staircase to protect the structure of the Borobudur Temple. He said it was important to take action. We need a structure that doesn't allow tourists to see without breaking the menu. "
The temple itself has a historic track record of up to 12 centuries since its inception. Once a religious monument representing the Shylindra dynasty, the temple was abandoned until it was rediscovered and restored by the horrific eruption of Mount Merapi. So far, no written source has been found that clearly states the construction of the Borobudur Temple and the time it will take for the construction process. Therefore, it is not possible to reliably determine the age of the temple. 4,444 experts estimate that the temple was built in the 8th century. This estimate is based on an analysis of ancient inscriptions on the Karmawibanga Relief inscriptions that explain the causes and consequences of actions at the base of the temple, compared to other known inscriptions.
Foto diambil dari tribun Travel
According to the Borobudur Temple Conservation Center, the structure of this temple consists of nine terraces and a large stupa at the top. The nine terraces consist of six square terraces and three circular terraces. Legend has it that the Borobudur Temple was founded by an architect named Guna Dharma, but historically this is uncertain. Historian J.G. Casparis wrote in an article published in 1950 that the founder of the Borobudur Temple was King Samaratungga, who ruled until the time of his daughter Ratu Plum Ruwadani in 7828, when the Shailendra Dynasty 12 was completed. I presumed that. In his article I am. Gede Mugi Raharjo, Professor of Denpasar at the Indonesian Institute of Fine Arts (ISI), writes that the architecture of the Borobudur Temple is a fusion of Buddhist philosophy and Indonesian culture. The hemispherical architectural form consists of three layers: Kamadatsu, filled with shiny human relief, and Rupadatsu, which depicts people who resist desire but are still obsessed with secular elements increases.
On the other hand, at the 3rd level, Alpadatu is no longer bas-reliefed as a form associated with secular elements. Borobudur Temple also refers to the cosmology of the archipelago facing the mountains with its thick staircase design, as written by Raharja. Borobudur is the largest temple in history and is also used as a sacred place of worship for Buddhists. This place is considered a place of pilgrimage by the general public and other Buddhists. The government said that the tourism development of must be consistently pursued, given that the surge in tourists visiting the Borobudur area is naturally more concerned about the presence or absence of environmental protection. For this reason, Tourism Minister Sandiaga Uno said the development will continue to pay attention to the completeness and sustainability of the Borobudur Temple area as a historic relic of the Indonesian state. Also, tourist villages located around Borobudur will be able to be higher, considering that they are based on the welfare of the area. Therefore, this will be the mission of the Ministry of Tourism Creative Industries, Sandiaga Uno said.
In accordance with RP JMN 2020-2024, the Ministry of Tourism Creation and Industry aims to certify 244 holiday villages as independent holiday villages by 2024. Of the 244 holiday villages, 150 are on five priority destinations, including DPSP Borobudur, and will be expanded again. We hope that Indonesian people will continue to work with the government and reduce income from creative industries such as MSME, especially to sustain economic growth. I hope this helps.
Jember, June, 16,2022/ Andi Eka Prima, M.Pd