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From Round Table Conference to Indonesia Republic Unitary State

2 September 2019   19:57 Diperbarui: 2 September 2019   19:57 80 0 0 Mohon Tunggu...

Located at Ridder Zaal Den Haag on August 23, 1949, Dr. Wilem Drees The Dutch Prime Minister officially opened the Round Table Conference. Dr. Drees who was appointed as chairman of this conference in his remarks, among others, said: " If the Indonesian side can start this conference with confidence, then the matter of forming a Republic of Indonesia union and the transfer of sovereignty, for the Netherlands is something that cannot be denied anymore. Therefore it is hoped that Indonesian parties will truly create a foundation of lasting cooperation with the Netherlands for the achievement of success for both parties. "The Round Table Conference was held in The Hague from August 23, 1949, to November 2, 1949.

Is it possible that we can review this Dutch-Indonesian relationship in the past 70 years especially about the Round Table Conference, and also the process of returning from RIS to RI in 1950? Besides that, as students, especially Indonesian citizens can learn how the process of a country as a result of Round Table Conference, instead it unilaterally changed into a unitary state. Don't forget the things that emerged after 1950. As we feel later, after the transfer of sovereignty which we termed the Recognition of Sovereignty on December 27, 1949, various new conflicts between Dutch Indonesia and Indonesia had emerged, such as the West Irian conflict, the transfer of Dutch property and companies to the IGGI problem.

The 1945-1949 Indonesian-Dutch conflict which ended with the Round Table Conference was not only resolving as quickly and fairly as possible in a fair and sustainable conflict between the two countries and the nation but between the Indonesian people themselves the conflict between BFO (bijeenkomst voor Federal overleg) and the Republic of Indonesia. Of course, as was hoped in the remarks by the head of the Prime Minister Muhammad Hatta's Delegation, which is " that our children and grandchildren will then thank us", it might have been too optimistic about being thrown at that time.

After Dutch-Indonesian relations stretched in a cycle that occurred several times, then other countries have used it well. In the economic sector, for example, Japan as a defeated country has become the king of the industry in the country and a major supplier and importer of various important commodities. This is mainly based on cooperation and friendship between the two countries. Likewise, the United States and several European countries. While the Netherlands only bite the finger to see from a distance that luck. In addition, the remnants of the old conflict involving tribes and regions even surfaced and became a new stumbling block for the two countries. Like the Republic of South Maluku (RMS), the State of Free Papua and as a result of New Order affairs, the issue of the Indonesian Military Operations Area (DOM) in Aceh, a number of Acehnese who was aggrieved demanded the Dutch Government and requested political asylum.

The Round Table Conference issue cannot be separated from RI's lobbying of sympathetic countries. In Asia India, which in 1948-1949 had just become independent (India's indpendence day on 15 August 1947) was very vocal in defending the interests of the Republic of Indonesia. For example, from 20 to 23 January 1949, Indian Prime Minister Nehru held a conference in New Delhi to discuss the second Dutch military aggression in Indonesia. Conference participants are Afghanistan, Australia, Burma, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen. As observers were representatives from Nepal, New Zealand, and Thailand. The results of the conference in the form of a resolution were then sent by Nehru to the Security Council. It turned out that along with other resolutions including the United States, China, Cuba, and Norway, Lake Success. Although the Dutch side represented by Van Roijen (Van Kleffens' successor) desperately convinced as many Council members as possible, in the January 28th, 1949 vote of 13 members, only 3 members who abstained agreed. Countries that abstained were France, Ukraine, and the Soviet Union. This resolution, which came to be known as the UN Security Council Resolution on January 28th, 1949, was a diplomatic key to resolving the Indonesian-Dutch conflict. Some points include:

1. All political prisoners must be released.

2. RI Government Returns to Yogyakarta.

3. Entered the Federal Government no later than March 15th, 1949.

4. Elections for the Constituent Assembly must be completed on October 1st, 1949.

5. RI Government returns in other areas gradually.

What's interesting about the issuance of this resolution is the Dutch debate represented by Van Roijen and RI or precisely the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia represented by Palar. Sympathy for RI came from various parties including Belgium, which initially sided with the Dutch. Victims among the Dutch cabinet also began to fall, for example, the cabinet of the opposite region who was persistent in defending Dutch aggression II, Sassens. Likewise, PM Beel who acted mistakenly proposed a "Beel Plan" approved by the Dutch Government whose intention was to accelerate the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia without going through international approval as of Resolution January 28th, 1949. It also meant that Indonesian leaders were invited as individuals.

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